Muscles of Facial Expression

Textbook Illustration
Pen & Ink
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This illustration is a diagram of the facial nerve and the muscles that it controls. The context for this illustration was a textbook page about facial nerve palsy, also known as Bell’s palsy. Facial nerve palsy is a pathology that is characterized by paralysis of facial muscles that are innervated by the facial nerve. Affected individuals will typically exhibit inability to smile or bare teeth, wink or close the eye, wrinkle the forehead, or keep food from getting stuck between the teeth and the cheek, among other symptoms.


1. Hansen JT. (2010) Netter’s Clinical Anatomy, 2nd edition. Saunders, Philadelphia. 470 pp.
2. Standring S. (2005) Gray’s Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice, 39th edition. Elsevier-Churchill-Livingstone, Philadelphia. 1627 pp.
3. Wilson-Pauwels L, Akesson EJ, Stewart PA, Spacy, SD. (2002) Cranial Nerves in Health and Disease, 2nd edition. BC Decker Inc, Hamilton. 245 pp.